Artificial intelligence (AI) has revolutionised various industries, including medicine, where it has the potential to greatly improve diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. However, the implementation of AI in healthcare also raises important ethical considerations. In this article, we will explore the ethical implications of human-in-the-loop AI systems in medicine and discuss how healthcare organisations can navigate these challenges.

As it stands, it’s crucial to keep a human in the loop in AI systems for a variety of reasons. Chief among these are the potential legal and ethical ramifications of relying on AI for diagnosis and deciding on treatment options. Since AI is certainly not perfect, humans must be the final decision makers for any medical treatment and rely on AI tools as just that — a tool. What might a medical miscalculation from an AI system look like in legal terms, for example? In addition to improper treatment, it could result in a nasty lawsuit. Because AI systems aren’t legally accountable, the human relying on the system has to be legally accountable for all decisions. 

It’s unclear whether in the future we can expect fully automated healthcare solutions from AI, but it seems likely the human-in-the-loop system will remain the necessary option for far into the future. Because AI is developing so rapidly and its use in healthcare is in its early stages, predicting exactly how things go is impossible. However, there would have to be a sea change in both the AI systems used and legal and insurance frameworks in which medicine currently operates to allow fully automated systems. 

So, let’s take a look at the current role of AI in medicine, the need for human judgement, and how healthcare providers can benefit from using AI systems — all while maintaining a watchful, human eye on the situation. 

Understanding the Role of AI in Healthcare

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AI technologies, such as machine learning algorithms and neural networks, have the ability to analyse vast amounts of medical data, identify patterns, and make predictions. In medicine, AI is being used for tasks such as diagnosing diseases, predicting patient outcomes, and even assisting in surgical procedures. These advancements have the potential to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of healthcare delivery.

However, as AI becomes more prevalent in healthcare, it is crucial to ensure that ethical considerations are at the forefront of its implementation. The use of AI in medicine raises concerns related to privacy, bias, transparency, and the role of human judgement. Let’s delve deeper into each of these areas.

Safeguarding Patient Privacy

One of the primary concerns surrounding the use of AI in healthcare is the protection of patient privacy. As AI algorithms rely on large volumes of medical data, it is essential to establish robust safeguards to protect sensitive patient information.

Healthcare organisations must adhere to existing regulations, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which govern the collection, use, and disclosure of patient data. However, it is important to note that HIPAA was established before the widespread adoption of AI and may not fully address the unique privacy risks associated with AI systems.

To mitigate privacy risks, healthcare organisations should establish comprehensive risk management programs that include processes and procedures for vetting third-party vendors before granting them access to patient data. Regular audits should be conducted to identify and address any compromised data, and strict controls over data access should be enforced. Additionally, healthcare professionals and vendors should receive training on data use limits, security obligations, and patient consent and authorization forms.

Addressing Bias in AI Systems

Another ethical consideration in the use of AI in medicine is the potential for bias. AI algorithms are trained on historical data, which may contain biases related to race, gender, or socioeconomic status. If these biases are not addressed, AI systems can perpetuate and amplify existing healthcare disparities.

To mitigate bias in AI systems, it is crucial to evaluate data and algorithms for potential biases and adopt best practices during the collection, utilisation, and creation of AI algorithms. Healthcare organisations should test algorithms in real-life settings, account for “counterfactual fairness,” and establish a continuous feedback loop where humans provide consistent feedback to improve the AI’s performance. By taking these steps, healthcare organisations can minimise bias and ensure fair and equitable outcomes for all patients.

Ensuring Transparency and Explainability

Transparency and explainability are essential aspects of ethical AI systems in healthcare. It is crucial for healthcare professionals and patients to understand how AI systems arrive at their decisions. Black-box algorithms that cannot provide explanations for their outputs can erode trust and hinder the acceptance of AI in healthcare.

Developing interpretable AI models and providing clear explanations for their decisions can help build trust and facilitate collaboration between AI systems and human healthcare providers. Healthcare organisations should prioritise the development of explainable AI algorithms and ensure that healthcare professionals are adequately trained to interpret and validate the outputs of AI systems.

The Role of Human Judgment and Expertise

DALL·E 2024 01 18 23.04.09 Create two more images in a similar style depicting a futuristic medical scene in landscape orientation with vibrant colors. The scene includes a med

While AI systems can assist in diagnosing diseases and predicting outcomes, they should never replace human judgement and expertise. Keeping a human in the loop is essential to ensure that AI systems are used as tools to augment human decision-making rather than replace it.

Human oversight is necessary to validate AI-generated recommendations, consider individual patient circumstances, and make the final treatment decisions. This human-AI collaboration can lead to improved patient outcomes while maintaining the ethical responsibility of healthcare professionals.

Striking a Balance between Innovation and Privacy

As healthcare organisations embrace AI technologies, they must strike a balance between innovation and privacy. The collection and use of patient data are crucial for training AI algorithms and improving healthcare outcomes. However, it is essential to prioritise patient privacy and ensure that data is collected and used in accordance with ethical guidelines and regulations.

Healthcare organisations should continuously assess the risks and potential impacts of their AI systems and the identifiable data they produce. By employing cutting-edge methods for data protection and anonymization, healthcare organisations can safeguard patient privacy while harnessing the power of AI to enhance healthcare delivery.


The integration of AI in medicine has the potential to revolutionise healthcare and improve patient outcomes. However, it is imperative that ethical considerations guide its implementation. By safeguarding patient privacy, addressing biases, ensuring transparency and explainability, and maintaining the role of human judgement, healthcare organisations can navigate the ethical challenges associated with human-in-the-loop AI systems in medicine. Ultimately, by adopting responsible practices, healthcare organisations can leverage the benefits of AI while upholding their ethical responsibilities to patients.

AI systems have come a long way in recent years, and they’re proving to be invaluable in medicine. However, human doctors aren’t going away anytime soon. In the best case scenario, which we see as the most likely, AI systems will help streamline medical departments by cutting out a lot of the grunt work. Take retinal imaging diagnostics, for example: AI systems are proving to be very effective at identifying retinal disease, which can be a time-consuming affair for clinicians. In developing countries where medical services are stretched thin, saving time in such work can help doctors attend to more patients and improve both the quality and availability of healthcare. 

If you’re in need of guidance in developing or implementing AI systems in medicine, you’ll want an industry player with cutting-edge knowledge and broad experience. That experience brings wisdom, which often lags behind knowledge. So for those seeking guidance in this crucial industry, look to SmartDev for solutions. Reach out to us to discuss a project and we’ll get you going in the right direction. The future is bright, and it most certainly still centres on humans. 

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